Organic Definitions

Alcohols

These compounds can be found in industrial, medical, domestic cleaning products as well as in food. They are very soluble and can present a hazard to human health and the environment. The target compounds in this analysis are: methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol, butanol and pentanol. The assessment is performed with a gas chromatograph with a FID (Flame Ionization Detector).

Chlorinated and Non-Chlorinated Phenols(by-products or products of industrial manufacturing).

Include wood preservatives, agrochemical and medical products as well as cleaning agents.

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (Semi-Volatiles)

Most of these semi-volatile, aromatic and non-aromatic hydrocarbons are toxic to humans. They can accumulate in river sediment and seep through soils to the water table base. The compounds in the screen include: 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 2-chloronaphthalene, hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hexachloroethane, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene.

Glycols and Amines (water soluble and non-volatile)

They are commonly used in coolant systems, industrial feed stocks and as water removal systems in gas processing facilities. Compounds of interest in this screen include: propylene, ethylene, diethylene, triethylene, and tetraethylene glycols. The amine screen includes such alkanolamines as ethanolamine, diisopropanolamine, diethanolamine, and triethanolamine. The assessment is performed with as gas chromatograph with a FID (Flame Ionization Detector).

PolyAromatic Hydrocarbons (See EPA Target List)

PAHs, as a group, are comprised of complex lipophilic hydrocarbons, which are made up of a series of aromatic rings. Currently, regulatory authorities (this may vary with the jurisdiction) assess only 16 specific (target) compounds: Acenaphthene, fluoranthene, naphthalene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene. These parameters are assessed using EPA Method 8270 (GC/MS).

Qualitative Scans (non-target by GC/MS).

Results matched to library spectra followed by interpretation.

Trihalomethanes

THMs are found in many chlorinated water supplies and some of which are industrial effluents or as a result of the water chlorination process. Halomethanes such as chloroform have been shown to cause adverse effects to the environment. The components in this screen include: bromoform, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, and dibromochloromethane. This is assessed using EPA Method 5030 (Purge & Trap) with GC/MS assessment (EPA Method 8260).

Volatiles and Non-Volatiles (See EPA Target List)

To perform a proper, thorough assessment of hydrocarbon contamination, both volatile and non-volatile components should be analyzed. The volatiles proportion contains compounds, which are both toxic and highly mobile. The higher carbon number fraction (non-volatiles) assessment is necessary for product identification and is typically the limiting factor in hydrocarbon contaminated site remediation sites. The BTEX components are Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (forms ortho, meta & para). The purgeable component hydrocarbon fraction includes light aromatic hydrocarbons including BTEX and all other purgeable hydrocarbons up to C10. This is assessed using EPA Method 5030 (Purge & Trap) with GC/MS assessment (EPA Method 8260). The extractable hydrocarbons can range from C8-C30+ depending on the site. If the contaminant hydrocarbon range exceeds C30, two alternative tests are available: a C11-C60 carbon assessment or a mineral oil & grease. Also, the new CCME Method can be used (4 fractions C5-C50).

Volatile Organic Compounds (See EPA Target List)

These compounds are commonly found in organic solvents and are of concern due to their low boiling points, large use, high toxicity and high degree of halogenation. Some of the VOC's participate in atmospheric reactions that have been attributed to the formation of photochemical smog. This is assessed using EPA method 5030 (Purge & Trap) with GC/MS assessment (EPA Method 8260).



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